The trees which produce coffee are the genus Coffea which belongs to the Rubiaceae family. There are somewhere in the region of 50 different species, although only two of these are commercially significant. These are known as Coffea arabica and Coffea camepfiora which is usually referred to as robusta. Arabica accounts for some 75% of world production.
The fruits of the coffee-tree are treated to remove the pulp and the yellowish Grey beans are hulled, grated and bagged. In this form the beans are known as green coffee which keeps for a long time provided that it is protected from damp.
Roasting is the second step where the beans releases various complex volatile constituents which are responsible for the characteristic flavour. The beans are continuously stirred during the roasting process at 200C they are light brown and double in volume. Well roasted coffees should be fairly dark reddish brown insufficient roasting produces a harsh, colourless, tasteless in fusion where as excessive roasting yields a very black and bitter coffee.
The final operation is grinding the fineness of the ground depends on which method is used to brew it is always preferable to grind only enough coffee for once immediate need, as ground coffees loses its aroma very quickly.
The stimulating effect the coffees has on the body is duet the alkaloid called caffeine.
Methods of making Coffee
Instant Coffees:- This is real coffe e, which has been made ad dehydrated. It is reconstituted by adding boiling water.
Filter/drip coffees: This uses a fine to medium grind coffees. This method involves pouring boiling water into a container which holds coffee inside a filter paper. Hot water is poured over this and then the coffe e drips through to a lower container.
Decaffeinated coffees:- coffees from which caffeine has been removed.
Vacuum Infusion (Cona coffee):- Using a medium grind this method is characterised by the double or glass bowl and filter which many people know by the trade mark (cona), the company who makes the glass equipment.
L’Cafeteria:- Using a medium grind, the coffee is made in a custom designed jug which has a plunger to act as a filter.
Espresso:- Using a fine grind, this uses a process of forcing steam through a fine filter containing coffe e. It is usually very strong
Cappuccino :- Using a fine grind this is expresso coffee t which milk heated by steam is added. Grated nutmeg, grated cardamom or chocolate powder is sprinkled on the top.
Turkish/ Egyptian coffees
Using powdered coffees, this is made from dark roasted coffees in a special copper pot. Vanilla pods are sometimes included as additional flavourings.
The best serving temperature are 82C for coffees and 68C for milk.
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