Culinary Terms L
1. Langoustine: A small variety of spiny lobster.
2. Larding:To place strips of fatty substance such as fat bacon on top of lean meat or on the breast of a dry bird. To run strips of fat bacon through lean meat with a larding needle.
3. Liaison:Mixture of eggs and cream used for thickening white sauces and soups.
4. LUKEWARM: Neither cool nor warm; approximately body temperature.
Lamington – A small cube of sponge or butter cake dipped in the thin chocolate icing and then coated in desiccated coconut. The Lamington originated in Australia and is said to be named often after Lord Lamington, governor of Queensland from 1895 to 1901,
Lemon – An oval yellow-skinned citrus fruit with pale yellow, tart tasting flesh. Although not usually eaten on its own, it is the most versatile and widely used of all fruits as its juice and fragrant rind are used to flavour a wide range of sweet and savoury dishes, and in drinks, marinades, sauces and icings. Slices and wedges of lemon is a common garnish. Its juice stops cut fruit from turning brown when exposed to the air. The lemon is a good source of vitamin C. fresh lemons are available throughout the years; lemon juice can be tough frozen or as a concentrate. The lemon probably originated in northern India, from it spread to China and to the Middle East.
Lemon Butter – Also known as lemon curd and lemon cheese, a sweet spread made from lemon juice, lemon rind, egg, butter and sugar. It is also used as filling for tarts cakes and biscuits (cookies).
Lime – A green skinned citrus fruit about the size of a small lemon with tart greenish-yellow pulp. Its juice and grated zest adds a piquant flavour to both sweet dishes (ice-creams, sorbets, mousses, soufflés and pie fillings) and savoury dishes (curries and stews, especially chicken and fish), it is cooked as marmalade and its juice is used in cordial and other drinks. The lime is native to the tropics and is much used in the cooking of those regions; the Spanish introduced it to the Caribbean in the sixteenth century. In South America and the Pacific Islands lime juice is used to ‘cook’ raw fish in the dish ceviche. Its sharpness is the key lime pie (named for the lime variety that grows semi-wild or the Florida Keys) gives an agreeable bite to the sweet creamy filling. Pickled lime is served with meat and fish dishes; the peel can be crystallized (candied) for a garnish. Fresh limes are in season in spring and autumn.
#Linzer Torte – A rich jam tart consisting of a cinnamon and nut flavoured shortbread base filled with raspberry jam and covered with a lattice of pastry strips. It is served in thin wedges. The Linzer torte takes its name from the Austrian town of Linz.
#Liqueur – An alcoholic syrup distilled from wine or brandy and flavoured with fruit, herbs or spices. Liqueurs are available in a wide variety of flavours and alcoholic content. Crème de cacao is made from the cocoa bean; Kümmel is flavoured with caraway seed and Ouzo with aniseed. Cointreau gets its strong orange tang from orange peel, while many other fruit liqueurs are made by macerating the fruit with spirit and adding sugar. Some liqueurs are flavoured with herbs or spices. Liqueurs are used to flavour a range of sweet dishes and savoury dishes; they are also served in special small glasses to be sipped with coffee after a meal.
#Loganberry – A large, soft, pink to red berry fruit. The loganberry is a hybrid between the blackberry (from which it takes its shape) and raspberry (from which it takes its flavour). It was developed in the 1880s by Scottish-born Californian judge and amateur horticulturist James H. Logan and was first exhibited in England in 1897. The loganberry can be eaten fresh, served whole as a dessert topped with cream, ice-cream or liqueur; pureed for use in ice-cream, sorbets, soufflés, mousses or fools; or cooked as a filling for pies and tarts or as jam.
Longan – An oval-shaped fruit of Asian origin. It is similar to the lychee, but smaller, and has a dull, red brown skin and sweet, firm, translucent flesh surrounding a dark brown stone. The Longan can be eaten fresh, added to fruit salad or savoury salad, or poached for use in sweet and savoury dishes. Longan is in season in late summer and early autumn; it is also available canned preserved in syrup) and dried. Dried longan can be eaten as it is, as you would other dried fruit, or added to braised and sweet and sour Chinese dishes. The fruit’s Chinese name is lung-yen means ‘dragons – eye’.
#Loquat – The pear shaped fruit of a small evergreen tree native to Asia and nowadays grows in the lands of the Mediterranean. It is the size of a small plum with glossy yellow-orange skin and crisp, juicy, tart-sweet yellow flesh. It can be eaten fresh on its own, added to fruit salads or other desserts (in Asia it is often set in a jelly of agar-agar) or cooked as jellies and jam.
#Lychee (litchi) – A small oval fruit about the size of a large cherry with sweet, pale pink flesh similar in flavour to a grape, and thin, knobbly, reddish skin. The flesh surrounds a shiny brown stone. The flesh surrounds a shiny brown stone. Lychees can be eaten fresh on their own, added to fruit salads and to savoury salads or served as a dessert with cream or ice-cream; poached, they can be added to both sweet and savoury dishes. Lychees are in season in summer; the fruit is also available canned and dried. The lychee is native to southern China and has been cultivated there for some 4,000 years.