CULINARY TERMS S
#Sabayon : Yolks of eggs and a little water cooked until creamy.
#Saffron :The dried stigma of the crocus flower. used for adding colour and flavour.
#Salmi : Partly roasted game made into a rich stew.
#SAUTE : To cook and/or brown food in a small amount of hot fat.
#Scald : To immerse food in boiling liquid for a short time. To heat a liquid (e.g. milk) to just under boiling point or to pour boiling water on (e.g. scald a jug).
#SCALLOP : To bake a food, usually in a casserole, with sauce or other liquid. Crumbs often are sprinkled over.
#Score : To make light cuts in a surface such as the outside of a fat piece of pork before roasting.
#SEAR : To brown very quickly by intense heat. This method increases shrinkage but develops flavor and improves appearance.
#Seasoned flour : Flour flavoured with salt and pepper.
#Sherbet : Frozen mixture of fruit juice. egg whites. sugar. milk or water.
#Shortening : Fat suitable for baking is sometimes called this.
#SHRED : To cut or tear in small, long, narrow pieces.
#Shredded : Cut in fine strips e.g.. lettuce. cabbage. etc.
#Sift : To put dry ingredients through a fine sieve.
#Simmer : To cook a liquid. or food in a liquid. at a temperature just below boiling point.
#SIMMER : To cook slowly in liquid over low heat at a temperature of about 180°. The surface of the
#Singe : To brown or colour.
#Skewer : A long pin of wood or metal used to secure meat or poultry while cooking.
#SKIM : To remove impurities, whether scum or fat, from the surface of a liquid during cooking, thereby resulting in a clear, cleaner-tasting final produce.
#Sorbet :A half-frozen water ice. served in the middle of a long dinner.
#Souffle :Baked or steamed light pudding. savoury or sweet, usually puffed up with egg whites.
#Spaghetti : An Italian pasta. finer than macaroni. coarser than vermicelli.
#STEAM : To cook in steam in a pressure cooker, deep well cooker, double boiler, or a steamer made by fitting a rack in a kettle with a tight cover. A small amount of boiling water is used, more water being added during steaming process, if necessary.
#STEEP :To extract color, flavor, or other qualities from a substance by leaving it in water just below the boiling point.
#STERILIZE : To destroy micro organisms by boiling, dry heat, or steam.
#STEW : To simmer slowly in a small amount of liquid for a long time.
#STIR : To mix ingredients with a circular motion until well blended or of uniform consistency.
#Stock : Well-flavoured liquid made from meat. vegetables. fish or poultry. etc.. and used as a foundation for soups. sauces. stews. etc.
#Supreme : A name given to the fillet of fish or breast of fowl or game.
#Sabayon Sauce – A light, foamy sauce made with whipped egg yolks, sugar and a liquid (usually dry or sweet white wine or champagne) and served warm and foaming with puddings, cakes or fruit; it is a French variation of the Italian dessert Zabaglione.
#Sacher Torte – A dense chocolate cake with two layers separated by a thin filling of apricot jam and the whole covered with smooth chocolate. Created by Franz Sacher, chief pastry cook to the Austrian statesman Metternich during the congress of Vienna (1814-15), the cake was later the cause of a protracted argument between Sacher’s descendants and Vienna’s famous Demel patisserie as to whether in its true form it had two layers or was simply a cake spread with jam and then iced.
#Sago – tiny balls of starch prepared from the starchy inner bark of the sago palm, a tree native to the swamps of Malaysia, the Philippines, and India which, just before flowering at 15 years of age, builds up a large reserve of starch. Sago is used mainly as a dessert, cooked until transparent in sweetened milk, flavoured water, or coconut milk.
#Sapote – A tropical fruit from Central America. The black sapote, also known as the pudding fruit, is similar in size and shape to a persimmon. It has green skin and soft, sweet, dark brown flesh. It can be eaten scooped straight from the skin, puréed as a sauce or added to ice-cream. The white sapote, also green-skinned, has pale yellow, buttery-textured sweet flesh.
#Sauce – A hot or cold seasoned liquid served with a dish to add flavour to it. A sauce may be thick or thin, strained or chunky Classic French sauces may be based on a roux of butter and flour (béchamel, brown sauce), on a butter emulsion (béarnaise, hollandaise), or on a cold emulsion of oil and egg yolks (mayonnaise); all can be varied with addition of a great variety of other ingredients. Other sauces are based on puréed vegetables or fruit (coulis), groundnuts (satay sauce), cooked tomato (ketchup), cream, yoghurt, cream cheeses and oils. Sweet sauces include custards, rich cream sauces and fruit purees. Many sauces are commercially available, either bottled, canned or dry in packets, to be mixed with water, milk or stock.
#Savarin – A large ring-shaped cake made of baba dough without raisins. After cooking it is soaked with rum-flavoured syrup and the centre filled with crème pâtissière (confectioners custard) or Chantilly cream and fruit.
#Scone – A small plain cake made from a simple flour and milk dough raised with baking powder or bicarbonate of soda (baking soda); in North America such a cake is known by the term ‘biscuit’, and the term ‘scone’ refers to a plain or sweet quick bread made from a richer dough that usually contains egg.
#Scones are served freshly baked, split in half, with butter or cream and jam or honey as a light mid-morning or mid-afternoon meal; scones with clotted cream and strawberry jam are the basis of Devonshire tea. Dried fruit can be added to the dough or, for a savoury scones (biscuits) are often served as an accompaniment to a meal or may be split open to sandwich fillings such as smoked turkey and ham.
Scones originated in Scotland and were originally cooked on a griddle (a thick flat iron with a handle).
#Score – To make incisions on the outer surface of a food in order to decorate it to allow the penetration of a marinade, or in the case of some fruits (such as an apple) to prevent the skin from splitting during baking.
#Semolina – A food made by coarsely grinding hard durum wheat. Semolina is used to make milk puddings, cakes, custards, and biscuits (cookies). Semolina flour, milled from the heart of durum wheat, is used to make pasta.
#Sherbet – A smooth, iced dessert consisting of milk, sugar, sometimes gelatin or egg white and a sharp-tasting fruit flavouring, usually citrus. Sherbet is softer and less rich than ice-cream and although similar, lacks the biting fruity tang of sherbet (which does not include milk. It can be served topped with a few spoonfuls of champagne or liqueur and accompanied by sliced fresh fruit. Both sherbet and sorbet have their origins in ancient Persia -–the word ‘sherbet’ comes from sharbia, the Arabic word for ‘drink’. Sherbet is commercially available or can be made at home.
#Sherry – A fortified wine produced in Spain and usually taken as a pre-dinner drink. Both dry sherry and sweet sherry are used in the cooking of savoury dishes (especially sauces, game stews, and chicken dishes – usually added just before serving), and sweet dishes (such as trifle and other cold desserts). Sherry was imported into England after the sixteenth century from the Spanish port of Jerez de la Frontera – the name sherry derives from attempts to render jerez into English.
#Shortbread –A rich buttery, slightly sweet, thick biscuit (cookie) made from flour, sugar and butter only. Shortbread originated in Scotland; it is usually baked in a round pan, scored into segments before baking but can also be cut in rectangular fingers. In Britain it is a traditional Christmas fare.
#Shortcake – A cake made from a dough similar to that used for scones (biscuits) but enriched with butter, sugar and milk or cream. Sponge cake can also be used. Shortcake is usually served as a dessert, split horizontally and filled with sweetened whipped cream and sliced fruit (usually strawberries, but also blueberries or peaches); the top is also spread with cream and fruit. Shortcake is American in origin and gets its name from the ‘short’ (rich and crumbly) dough used in its preparation.
#ShortcrustPastry – A simple, rich, crumbly pastry made by rubbing fat (butter, margarine or lard) into flour, then stirring in just enough liquid – usually water – to hold the mixture together; the dough should be chilled before use. Shortcrust is used for pie crusts and tart bases. It can be sweetened with sugar, enriched with egg or made into a savoury crust by the addition of herbs or grated cheese. Readymade frozen shortcrust pastry is available.
#Shortening – A fat used for frying and baking, usually made from vegetable oils although animal fat is sometimes added. Shortening is used in doughs, pastries (especially to make crisp shortcrust pie crusts), breads and cakes.
#SienaCake – See Panforte.
#SimmelCake – A rich fruit cake sandwiched and coated with almond paste and now traditionally associated with Easter, although it was originally made for Mothering Sunday, in May.
#SodaBread – A bread in which the leavening agent is a combination of bicarbonate of soda (baking soda) and buttermilk (or some other acid ingredients), which react together to generate bubbles of carbon dioxide. Traditional Irish soda bread contains only local wholesome flour, buttermilk, bicarbonate of soda (baking soda) and salt; it is scored with a deep cross for even baking.
#Sorbet – A smooth, sharp tasting iced dessert which consist of sugar syrup and fruit juice or sometimes a liquor (such as Calvados) or champagne.
#Sorbets can be served in a tall glass or shallow dish, and topped with a few spoonfuls of liqueur or champagne, garnished with frosted fruits or accompanied by a pureed fruit juice. Sometimes a small scoop is served between courses to refresh the palate; a savoury sorbet (such as thyme, rosemary, avocado, or olive) can be served as an accompaniment to a meat course.
Both sorbet and sherbet reached Europe through ancient Persia – the word sherbet comes from sharbia, the Arabic word for ‘drink’ – although iced fruit drinks may have originated in ancient China. ‘Sorbet’ is the French version of the word.
#Soufflé – A light and fluffy egg dish, either savoury or sweet. There are two types: hot and cold. The airy texture of a hot soufflé is achieved by folding stiffly whisked egg whites through a warm sauce or puree; air trapped in the white causes the soufflé to rise when baked. Hot soufflé must be served immediately. A cold soufflé is a mousse-like mixture lightened with whipped egg-whites; it is set in a mould with sides extended by foil.
#Sourdough – Fermented dough, saved when making a batch of bread and used instead of yeast as a starter when making the next batch.
#Soursop – Also called prickly custard apple, the green-skinned, heart-shaped fruit of a small tree native to tropical America.
#Speculaas – Thin, crisp biscuits (cookies) spiced with ginger, cinnamon and allspice and topped with slivered almonds, often made in the shape of legendary and traditional characters. Speculaas are popular in the Netherlands and southern Germany – from where they originated.
#SpongeCake – A fluffy, light-textured cake which achieves its airiness from stiffly beaten egg white. There are several distinct types. Sponge cakes may be flavoured with vanilla, grated citrus peel, cocoa or orange flower water; after baking, the cake may be moistened with a liqueur or thin syrup. Sponges are often used for layer cakes, filled with jam and cream and topped with a dusting of icing (confectioners) sugar.
#Sponge Fingers – Airy finger-shaped biscuits (cookies) made using sponge cake mixture; they are firm on the outside and soft in the centre. The tops are dusted with icing (confectioners) sugar before baking. Sponge fingers are served with chilled cream desserts, ice-cream, and fruit purees and can be used as a border for cold charlottes.
#Spotted Dick – A Steamed or boiled suet pudding studded with currants, sultanas or other dried fruit, usually served hot; a traditional English dessert.
#Spumone – An Italian frozen dessert is consisting of ice-cream layers assembled in a mould and then frozen. #Spumone usually has a layer of chocolate ice-cream, a strawberry or raspberry ice-cream layer and a green layer of pistachio ice-cream; the inner layers can also consist of whipped cream or liqueur-soaked fruits. The dessert is served sliced.
#SpunSugar – Also known as angel’s hair, gossamer-fine threads of syrup made from sugar boiled to a light caramel. Spun sugar is used as a decoration or garnish for ice-creams, special desserts, and festive cakes. Croquembouche, the traditional French wedding cake, is a high pile of choux pastry puffs glazed with spun sugar.
#StarFruit – See Carambola.
#SteamedPudding – A British specialty, the steamed pudding is cooked in a deep covered basin over boiling water. The basic pudding mixture usually consists of flour, fat, sugar, and eggs; dried or fresh fruits, spices and flavourings such as coffee, vanilla, and chocolate, may be added. Steamed pudding range from the dense and fruit-rich plum (or Christmas) pudding to light, cake-like, soufflé puddings. Steamed ginger pudding, a warming winter favourite which probably evolved as a less expensive version of the traditional plum pudding, is made with a layer of honey or golden syrup (light corn syrup can be substituted) at the bottom of the basin; this soaks into the batter and forms a syrupy topping sauce when the pudding is un-moulded.
#Stollen – A German yeast cake made with dried fruits, candied peel and almonds, and sprinkled with sugar before baking. It is traditionally eaten at Christmas.
#Strawberry – The red, heart shaped, juicy berry of a ground-hugging plant related to the rose, now cultivated throughout the world. Strawberries can be added to fruit and savoury salads, eaten with a little cream or a dusting of sugar and a squeeze of lemon juice, and used or sliced to garnish a range of cakes and desserts. They are pureed for use in ice-cream and sorbets, and cooked as jams, jellies, preserves, and fillings for tarts and pies.
#Strawberries have been cultivated in Europe since the thirteenth century. At the beginning of the eighteenth century the scarlet Virginia strawberry reached France from North America – it is the ancestor of the large varieties commercially available today. The wild strawberry has a more intense flavour.
#Strudel – A dessert or savoury dish consisting of a wafer –thin pastry dough wrapped around a filling, then baked (traditionally bent into a crescent or horseshoe shape). It is usually served warm. Sweet fillings can include apple, sour cherry, and cream cheese mixtures. Savoury strudels with fillings such as chopped, boiled beef with bacon and onions are popular in Austria.
#Suet – The white fat which lies around lamb and beef kidneys. It is firm, dry, and non-greasy to handle and is used as fat in the cooking of pastries and rich boiled puddings. Suet is available in solid form from butchers or can be bought packaged, shredded, and ready for use from supermarket.
#Sugar – A sweet-tasting food used mainly as a following. It is extracted from many plants, principally sugar cane (in tropical regions) and sugar beet (in cooler climates); lesser quantities are obtained from certain maple and palm trees and the sorghum plant. To process sugar from cane the juice is extracted and boiled until it crystallizes (candies); centrifugal machines are used to separate the raw sugar crystals from the liquid molasses. For beet sugar the juice is extracted from the root. There are various types of sugar. Brown sugar is soft and moist with a characteristic flavour that comes from a film of molasses surrounding each crystal; it is used especially in baking chewy biscuits (cookies) and dark cakes. Raw sugar, made directly from the classified juice of sugar cane, has coarse, straw-coloured crystals. White or granulated sugar, with medium-sized crystals, is refined from sugarcane and is used as a general sweetener. Caster (superfine) sugar has finer crystals and dissolves more quickly than white sugar and so is best for meringues, and some cakes and puddings. Powdered or icing (confectioners) sugar is granulated sugar milled to a fine powder. Palm sugar, or jaggery, is extracted from a species of low-branched palm tree and has a strong, treacle-like flavour; it gives Indian, Malaysian and Indonesian dishes.
#Sugarcane, a perennial grass, probably originated in southern India. The plant spread from there south to Malaysia and Indonesia, and north and west to ancient Persia. The ‘sweet reed’ and crystal that could be obtained from its juice, were also known to the Greeks and Romans. Sugar reached Europe with the Crusaders returning from south-western Asia in the thirteenth century but it did not displace honey as a general sweetener until the eighteenth century, when it inspired the development of elaborate French confectioneries (candies) and patisseries.
#Sultana – The dried fruit of a white grape, softer and sweeter than both the raisin and currant. Sultanas are baked in cakes, biscuits (cookies), puddings, and slices, added to stuffings, casseroles and curries, sprinkled on breakfast cereals or tossed through salads. They originated in Crete, where in ancient times sweet, seedless grapes were sun-dried and exported throughout the Aegean.
#SummerPudding – A cold dessert made by lining a basin with slices of bread, filling it with a lightly poached soft fruit (such as raspberries, redcurrants, blackcurrants, loganberries and blackberries) then chilling it overnight, until the juice soaks into the bread, flavouring and colouring it. The whole is turned out and served with whipped cream. Summer pudding is a traditional English dessert.
#Sundae – A dessert or sweet snack consisting of ice-cream topped with a flavoured syrup and sometimes fruit, often sprinkled with crushed nuts and whipped cream and served in a long, shallow glass dish. It originated in the United States in the nineteenth century where it was special Sunday treat.
#Sunflower Seed – Small, flat, oval seed from the centre of the huge yellow flower head of the sunflower plant. The seeds can be used raw in soups, stir-fries, pasta, and rice dishes. Roasted, they add crunch to salads and cooked vegetables; boiled, they can be added to cakes, biscuits (cookies) and puddings. Sunflower seeds are often used as bird feed. A flour ground from the roasted seeds is available. Oil pressed from the seeds is used in cooking, and in salad dressings, margarines, and shortenings. The sunflower plant is believed to have originated in Central America. It was taking to Spain in the sixteenth century and spread throughout Europe.
#SwissRoll – A thin sheet of sponge cake spread with a sweet filling then rolled up. The finished cake is sprinkled with icing (confectioners) sugar and sliced.
#Syrup – A sweet liquid, usually a solution of sugar and a liquid. Corn syrup is the liquid form of sugar refined from corn. Light corn syrup is less sweet than sugar; dark corn syrup has caramel colouring and flavoring added and tastes similar to molasses. See also Golden Syrup and Maple Syrup.