D2403- Stain & Stain removal
Stains and stain removal agents for Hotel House Keeping
A stain can be defined as spot or localized dislocation left on the fabric by the reaction with or absorption of foreign substance.
General procedure of stain removal
Follow the steps given below for removing stains from fabrics
- Identify the stain
- Classify the stains
- Select the reagents to be used
- Select the procedure to be used
- Proceed step by step to remove stains.
Classification of stains
Stains may be classified into different groups and the single stain may be fall into more than one class
- Animal stains – These are caused by animal products such as blood, eggs , milk, meat etc.
- Vegetable stains – These stains are caused by the plant product, like tea coffee, juice, tomato, gravy etc.
- Grease- These stains are from the grease or some pigmented matter with a grease base. This class include stains such as butter , curry, oil paint, varnish etc.
- Mineral stains – These stain are caused by writing ink, medicines, rust and so on.
- Acidic stains- These include stains from vinegar, and medicines containing nitric acid and so on.
- Natural dyes- These class includes stain from henna, betel leaf, tobacco chocolates etc.
Method of removal of some common stains
- Ballpoint -ink- Rub lightly with a cotton ball soaked in spirit. An old ball point ink may be soaked in glycerin to soften it then treat.
- Betel leaf- Bleach with 1% of potassium permanganate ( the fabrics turn brown) . Then soak it to 1% of oxalic acid dissolve in water ( till brown color disappear) . Launder.
- Blood- Soak in cold water about an hour, then transfer to lukewarm water, containing detergent, soak for 30 minutes then launder.
- Candle wax- Scrap off the surface with a blunt knife, Place the stains within two sheets of tissue paper or blotting paper and press it with warm iron.
- Chewing gum- Remove the surface gum with blunt knife, Apply ice to the stains allow to soak in cold water then launder.
- Chocolate/cocoa- Same treatment like blood.
- Tea coffee- Pour boiling water over the stain, apply borax solution and allow them to dry. Pour boiling water over it and then launder.
- Curry stains – Apply soap and then bleach in sunlight, if the stain has not disappeared wet it and put back in the sunlight again.
- Egg- Soak in detergent water and warm salt solution Then launder.
- Fruit/ Fruit juices- Soak in warm borax solution then launder.
- Ghee/ oil- Rub french chalk on the stain then brush off
- Henna- Soak in warm milk for half an hour then launder.
- Ice- cream milk- Rinse through with cold water then launder.
- Lipstick – Soften the stain by rubbing glycerin into it. Apply methylated spirit and then launder
- Shoe- polish- Sponge with liquid detergent . Steep the stain in Carbon tetrachloride wash in cold water.
Laundries may employ specialist known as spotters who are responsible for the stain removal. Spotters have in depth knowledge in fabrics . They know about the action of various chemicals on stains fabrics and dyes. They also have the skills and techniques required to handle various chemicals and remove stains from different types of fabrics without damaging of fabrics.