Spices and Herbs

Spices and herbs are used in many different ways in the art of cooking they are essential cook’s companion.Different cultures for different countries use different types and sets of spices and herbs to give their dishes different distinguishing taste and flavour.





Allspice Whole or ground #spice Small brown berry. Flavour resembles a combination, cinnamon, clove and nutmeg. Native to W. India. – Spices and #Herbs SL 326 Sausages, braised meats, poached fish, cooked fruits, puddings, pies, relishes
Anise Whole or ground spice Licorice flavour, native to Spain, China, and Syria. Cookies, pastries, bread.
#Basil Herb leaf; fresh or dried Aromatic green leaf, member of mint family. Can be grown fresh in warm weather. Tomato dishes, Pesto, egg dishes, salads, marinades, fish, compound butters.
Bay leaf Whole leaf herb Stiff, dark green, oblong leaf. Pungent aroma. Reminiscent of sassafras. Comes from laurel tree. Stocks, sauces, soups, stews, braised meats.
Bouquet garni Flavouring mix A personal selection of herbs, vegetables and occasionally spices, often tied with a string. – Spices and Herbs SL 329 Stocks, soups, sauces
Caraway Whole spice, seed. Dark brown curved seed. Grown in Northern Europe. Rye breads, cabbage, sauerkraut, Eastern European cuisine.
Cardamom Whole pod or ground seed spice. Tiny brown seeds, white on green pods. Sweet and aromatic, expensive. Native of India and Guatemala. Pickling, Danish pastries, curries
Cayenne Ground spice, seed. Ground hot red pepper. Very powerful. Native to French Guiana. In small amounts: soups, sauces, fish, eggs.
Celery seed Whole or ground spice, seed Tiny brown seed, with strong celery flavour. Too much can create a “hot” spice effect. Salads, dressings, pickling, tomato dishes, marinades. – Spices and Herbs SL 321
Chervil Herb leaf, fresh or dried Mild flavour of parsley and tarragon Soup, salads, sauces, egg dishes, chicken, fish, dressings.
Chili powder Ground spice, blend Blend of ground cumin, chili pepper, oregano, all spice. Can be mild or hot Chili, stews, sauces, ground meats.
Chives Fresh, dried, frozen herb Fine, hollow, green top of a very small onion Salads, egg and cheese dishes, fish soups, sauces.
Cilantro Leaf herb, dried or fresh Light green aromatic leaf. Shape of flat parsley but much more pungent flavour. Leaf from coriander seed. – Spices and Herbs SL 333 Salads, salsa, sauces, soups, eggs, dressings
Cinnamon Stick or ground spice Aromatic bark from cinnamon or cassia tree. Reddish brown colour. Native to east India. Preserves, stewed fruits, breads, pastries, desserts, ham, hot beverages.
#Clove Whole or ground spice Dried flowerbud of tropical clove tree, pungent, sweet in flavour. Native to Indonesia. Whole: Marinades, stocks, sauces, braised meats, hams, and pickling. Ground: pastries, fruits and cakes.
Coriander Whole or ground spice Round, light brown seed. Slightly aromatic flavour. Native to Argentina and Morocco. Seed to cilantro leaf. Pickling, sausage, stocks, pork, curries, gingerbread, salsa, dressings. – Spices and Herbs SL 259
Cumin Whole or ground seed, spice Small seed resembling caraway, but lighter in colour. Grown in Mexico and Syria. Ingredient in chili and curry powder blends. Sausage, meats, salsa, egg, and cheese dishes.
Curry Ground blend, spice Mixture of approx. 20 spices, peppery, yellow in colour. Includes turmeric, cumin, coriander, ginger, clove, cinnamon. Can vary from mild to very hot. Curry dishes, vegetables, soups, sauces, fish, meat, rice.
Dill Whole seed or “dill weed” which are leaves. Leaf fresh or dried. Herb and seed with “ dill pickle” flavour. Seed more pungent than herb. Seed: Pickling soups, sauerkraut, marinades. Herbs: Salads, soups, fish and shellfish, vegetables, sauces, vinegar.
Fennel Whole seed Greenish brown seed, similar in flavour to anise. Grown in S. America, Asia, and Africa. Sausage, tomato, sauces, marinades, fish, pickling.
Fine herbes Herb blend Generally a bouquet blend of three or more herbs used to enhance various dishes. Finely chopped herb mixture – chives, tarragon, parsley, basil, savoury, etc. – Spices and Herbs SL 257 Herb sauce, compound butters, broiled, fish, cold sauces.
Garlic Fresh, whole bulb. Dried: granulated powder, or mixed with salt. Strong, aromatic member of onion family. – Spices and Herbs SL 259 Used widely in cooking.
Ginger Spice, fresh whole, dried powder, candied, crystallized, or pickled. Light brown knobby root from tropical plant. Baked goods, desserts, fruits, curry dishes, pickling, chutney, Chinese, Caribbean and Japanese cuisine.
Juniper Berry Whole spice Slightly soft, purple berry, “Piney” flavour. Principle flavour of gin. Marinades, game dishes, sauerkraut.
Mace Whole “blade” or ground spice. Made from outer covering of nutmeg. Orange red in colour. Aromatic, similar to nutmeg in flavour but milder. Baked goods, desserts, fruits, sausage, fish, vegetables, preserves.
Marjoram Dried herb leaf Grey green herb from mint family. Similar to oregano but milder. Beef, veal, lamb, sausage, pâtés, poultry, stews, soups, vegetables, salads, sauces.
Mint Herb leaf, fresh or dried. Aromatic herb with cool flavour. Spearmint and peppermint are most common. Lamb, fruits, tea, fruit, beverages, peas, carrots, potatoes, jellies, soups, sauces.
Mirepoix Flavouring mix Mixture of vegetables, herbs and spices used to enhance the flavour of meat, fish and shellfish dishes. Common ingredients are – onion, celery, carrot, leek, garlic, peppercorns, bayleaf, clove, thyme and rosemary. Stocks, soups, sauces, roasts.
Mustard seed Whole and ground seed Very pungent seed – white, yellow or brown. – Spices and Herbs SL 297 Blended w/vinegar to make prepared mustard. Pickling, sauces, salsa, Prepared: Sandwiches sauces, dressings, ham.
Nasturtium Leaf and seed. Plant with yellow, orange, and red flowers, with sharp casting leaves and seeds with pungent odour. Salads, pickling, mustard.
Nutmeg Whole or ground spice Sweet, aromatic kernel of nutmeg fruit. Grown in Netherlands and East and West Indies. Baked goods, pies, cream sauces, soups, chicken, veal, vegetables, desserts, breads.
Oregano Leaf or ground herb, fresh or dried. Pungent herb, similar to marjoram, but stronger. Native to Italy and Mexico, grown domestically. Italian and Mexican dishes, tomato sauces, soups, sauces, stews, meats, salads, marinades.
Paprika Ground spice Ground from dried sweet red pepper. Spanish: Bright and mild. Hungarian: Darker and more pungent. Asset to bland pale food. Fish, sauces, dressings, garnish.
Parsley Fresh leaf herb in bunches. Dried. Green leaf, curly or flat, with delicate sweet flavour. Excellent source of vitamin C. Garnish, fried stews, sauces, salads, vegetables, potatoes.
Pepper Whole “peppercorns” black, white, or green, cracked medium or fine ground. Small hard berry. Black: Pungent, aromatic. White: What is left when black outer casing is removed, milder. Adds sharp tang to all foods. Green: Packed in mild brine. Widely used with just about all foods including green in sweets.
Poppy seeds Whole spice Tiny blue black seeds with crunchy nut like flavour. It is a product of the opium poppy, but does not contain opium Garnish for breads, rolls, pastry, fillings, cookies, cakes, salsa, dressings.
Rosemary Whole leaf herb, fresh or dried. Light green leaf resembling pine needles. Very aromatic. Once grown, very healthy and strong, even in cold weather. Lamb, fish, beef, sauces, soups, stews, salads, marinades.
Sachet bag Spice mix Various spices tied in a small cheesecloth sack. – Spices and Herbs SL 252 Braised meats, game stews, pickling, soups, sauces
Saffron Whole “threads” spice Only the stigmas from the saffron crocus are used. Very expensive. Gives bright yellow colour to foods. Mild distinctive flavour. Flavour and colour baked goods, rice, potatoes, soups, sauces, curry, meats.
Sage Whole, rubbed, or ground herb leaf, fresh or dried. Pungent grey green herb with fuzzy leaves, oblong shape. Stuffing’s, meats, poultry, soups, stews, salads, fish.
Savory Fresh or dried herb leaf Fragrant herb of mint family. Summer preferred to winter. Salads, eggs, vegetables, stuffing’s, soups, meats, fish, sauces.
Sesame Whole (hulled or unhulled) seed Small yellowish seed with nutty taste. High oil content. Imported from Asia, East and Central America. Can be roasted. Bread and roll garnish, salads, oriental candy.
Tarragon Fresh, dried, pickled herb leaf. Delicate green herb that is both mint and licorice – like. Small oblong leaf. – Spices and Herbs SL 265 Béarnaise sauce, tarragon vinegar, chicken, fish, salads, dressings, eggs.
Thyme Fresh or dried herb leaf, crushed or ground Tiny brownish green leaf, very aromatic. – Spices and Herbs SL 297 Soups, chowders, stocks, sauces, meats, poultry, salads, dressing.
Turmeric Ground spice Intense yellow root of ginger family. Mild but peppery flavour Curry powder, pickles, relish, salads, eggs, rice, chow – chow.
Detail List of Spices and Herbs and their uses …click Here

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