Stock – Recipe, Ingredients

For the culinarian, stock means “a liquid in which meat, fish, or vegetables are simmered.” It is the basis for soup, sauce,

stock s

gravy, or stew. Although specified and stated differently, stock in the kitchen serves the same purpose as in the first two definitions.

Stoc k, also termed FOND, is a “liquid base for making a sauce, stew or braised dish.” Escoffier perceived stocks as one of the principal culinary preparations, because they form the base for many other preparations. If not properly made, whatever is made from in will be of poor quality.

TYPES

There are three basic kinds of stock/fond; white sto ck (fond blanc), brown stock (fond brun)

WHITE STOCKis made with white meat or beef, veal bones, chicken carcasses and aromatic vegetables. The bones and mirepoix are put in cold water and slowly brought to a boil.

BROWN STOCK is made with beef veal and poultry meat and bones. The bones are roasted till golden in colour, not burnt. The mirepoix is added when the bones are three-quarters roasted. Tomato product may also be added at this time. When the bones and mirepoix are golden in colour, cold liquid is added and the mixture is slowly brought to boil, then reduced to a simmer to finish cooking. This is used for brown sauces and gravies, braised dishes and meat glazes.

An example recipe for fish stockis given in figure 4. The fragile soft bones of fish do not require the longer cooking times of meat and poultry. Too long a cooking time can also cause harsh flavour to develop in fish-stock.

WHITE STOCK

Chicken, Veal, Beef

Ingredients

Bones, cut small

Cold water

Mirepoix (diced)

Onion

Carrot or parsnip

Celery

Leek

Butter

Thyme

Bouquet garni

Bayleaf

Method of Preparation

1.     Place bones in stockpot and cover with cold water.

2.     Bring slowly to boil and skim the scum.

3.     Sauté mirepoix in butter until golden.

4.     Add sautéed mirepoix and aromatics to sto ck.

5.     Simmer 1 ½ to 2 hours for chicken, 4-6 hours for veal.

6.     Pass through a fine strainer, label, cool, and refrigerate.

BROWN STOCK (Beef or Veal)

Ingredients

Bones, cut small

Cold water or remouillage

Mirepoix (diced)

Onion

Carrot or parsnip

Celery

Leek

Tomato product

Thyme

Bayleaf

Quantity

60 lb.

18 gal.

3 lb.

3 lb.

3 lb.

2 lb.

Optional

1 tbsp.

10-15 ea.

Method of Preparation

1.     Place bones in a roasting pan and brown in a 350oF oven.

2.     When bones are ¾ done, place mirepoix over the bones and finish browning.

3.     When browned, remove bones and mirepoix and place in stockpot with aromatics.

4.     Remove the fat from the roasting pan. Deglaze roasting pan with water or remouillage and add to the stockpot.

5.     Add the remaining cold water or remouillage to cover the bones.

6.     Bring to boil; reduce to a simmer, and skim.

7.     Simmer for 6-8 hours.

8.     Pass through a fine strainer, label, cool, and refrigerate.

PREPARATION OF STOCK

Although the ingredients are simple and the method simplistic, you must use great care. This is a base from which you will create a wide variety of dishes, so it must be right. As with any other preparation, you must start with quality stock-are:

The four principle steps in producing stock are:

  1. Start with cold liquid.
  2. Allow natural clarification to occur.
  3. Skim carefully.
  4. Simmer, do not boil.

FISH STOCK

Ingredients

Fish bones with heads

Cold water

Mirepoix (diced)

Onion

Celery

Leek

Butter

White wine (Chablis)

Bayleaf

Parsley

Thyme

Method of preparation

1.     Clean bones and heads in cold running water. Break the large bones. Remove any black skins, blood clots, and gills.

2.     Sauté mirepoix and aromatics in butter. Cover and let sweat in their own juices.

3.     Add fish bones, cover, and let sweat for a few minutes.

4.     Add white wine and cover with cold water.

5.     Bring to a slow boil and simmer uncovered for upto 30 minutes.

6.     Pass through a fine strainer and use.

NATURAL CLARIFICATION

A high quality stock has a clear clean appearance. This requires that it be clarified. Pouring the cooked stock through a fine sieve is not the kind of clarification that we mean here. It is the removal of the many minute particles, which form, in the cooking process. Albumin is a protein complex found in muscles, blood, milk, egg white, and many vegetable tissues, such as leeks. It is soluble only in cold water. Albumin is valued for its property of clarification by coagulation (forming a mass) when exposed to heat. The slower the application of heat, the better the removal of cloudiness from liquid. Bringing stock slowly to a boil gives the albumin time to pass into the solution. As its proteins coagulate, they attract particles in the liquid. The action is similar to that of a magnet. However, as with the magnet, when disturbed they will drop the particles. Cloudiness normally is the result of stock being boiled for too long and fast over high heat. This extended boiling breaks down the texture of the bone fibers. When this happens, the particles become blended and suspended in the liquid. This makes it difficult, if not impossible, to clarify. A slight amount of cloudiness is normal in stock. The lack of blood in the bones used in stock creates a lack of albumin. There is not sufficient protein to all the particles.

SKIMMING

As the stock cooks and the albumin coagulates, fat and scum will rise to the top of the pot. It is important to remove all of it. This removal is called skimming, carefully lifting fat and scum from the surface. The mirepoix of vegetables is finely cut for the best flavour extraction. This and the aromatics float on the top of the pot. This can make it difficult to skim properly. To make it easier to skim, add the mirepoix and the aromatics after about ¼ of the cooking time has lapsed. The largest accumulation of fat and scum will occur in the early cooking of the stock. Once the mirepoix and aromatics are added, do not skim unless necessary. Let the stock cook undisturbed.

SIMMERING

This very simple operation is often misunderstood. Improper application of it generates most of the burned stocks and sauces. Simmering is when liquid is hot enough to form small bubbles that rise from bottom of the pan. The bubbles break, just below the top surface of the liquid. As they rise and break a slight turbulence occurs. When the temperature is too high, this turbulence is too great. If the temperature is too low, there is little or no movement in the liquid. Simmering, when correct, creates a slight roll in the liquid. Simmering is important in the cooking of sauces, when the slight roll of the simmer is not present, the coarser particles and sediments will settle on the bottom of the pan. This creates an insulating layer between the heat and the stock, which will burn. When it burns, it imparts an unwanted burnt flavour to the stock. Too much action in the liquid can harm stock. The heavy rolling action of a high boil will break up the scum and fat. This makes it difficult to skim the stock. The fast rolling action also does not allow the albumin to gather the fine particles. Improper placement of the pot on the fire can limit the simmering action and make it difficult to skim the stock.

PREPARATION FROM STOCK

ESSENCES

Essences are stocks made in a reduced form. This creates a concentrated flavour. Essences is made in the same manner as stock, but with less liquid.

Essence is used to boost the flavour of a stock, soup, or sauce. The addition of this concentrated flavour is meant to enhance the already good flavour of the item. The best essences are made from highly flavoured items, such as celery, truffles, mushrooms, morels, etc. Essences are not meant as saviors of preparations made from stock poor in flavour and quality. It is much easier to prepare a rich succulent, high quality stock, than to try save a poor stock with essence. Using a good stock at the start is far better and more efficient. Normally, it is better to add the product to the stock during preparation, rather than to prepare a special essence. Many chefs believe the use of essences is meaningless, if the basic stocks themselves have high quality strength and flavour.

GLAZE/GLACE

Glazes unite, in a reduced form, the principal strength and flavour of the ingredients in the stock. They have been

glaze

reduced to the consistency of syrup. (See example recipe in figure 6) this distinguishes them from essences, which are only the extraction of the flavour of the product being used. The various glazes of meat, poultry, game, and fish are widely used in modern cooking.

MEAT GLAZE

Ingredients

Brown stock (this should be good rich stock)

Method

1.     Place brown stock in a heavy-bottomed stockpot. Cook over moderate heat, allowing to reduce.

2.     After a suitable amount of reduction has occurred, strain the stock into a smaller pot. Continue this process as the reduction progresses.

3.     Skim the stock carefully throughout the process. This will determine the quality of the glaze.

4.     As the stock reduces, gradually reduce the heat. When the reduction is nearly complete, it must be over a very moderate heat to prevent scorching.

5.     The glaze is ready when it adheres to the back of a spoon. It should be glossy, translucent, syrup coating. This stage is normally reached after a reduction of 2/3 – ¾ of the original quality.

Note: For a lighter coloured, clear glaze, white stock should be used instead of brown stock. Chicken glaze is made in the same way as meat glaze using chicken stock. Game glaze is made the same as meat glaze using game stock. To produce a glaze with a specific game flavour, use game stock of the type needed. Fish glaze is not used as much as meat and chicken glaze. However, it is made in the same manner, using fish stock. The fish essence used for poaching will have a more delicate flavour than fish glaze. Most chefs prefer to reduce it and add it to a sauce instead of fish glaze.

Glazes serve four basic purposes in cooking. In most cases, there are advantages to be gained from using a glaze instead of an essence.

  1. Glazes give a brilliant shine and moist coating to a finished dish.
  2. They reinforce the quality and tone of sauces.
  3. Glazes strengthen the flavour and body of preparation made from weak stock.
  4. Glazes can act as sauces when used properly buttered or creamed to match the dish they are to be used with.

Many chefs of the old school do not allow the use of glazes. They justify this opposition by suggesting each culinary preparation should be prepared from its proper basic ingredients. It is their opinion that, if this is done, then the product will produce its own glaze

CONVENIENCE BASES AND GLAZES

STOCKS AT A GLANCE

WHITE (FOND BLANC)
BROWN (ESTOUFFADE)
FISH (FUMET DE POISSON
Bones/

Fish/

Meat

Blanched veal, chicken bones (shin and knuckles). Lean meat is also used. Beef or poultry bones browned in oven. Lean meat is also used. Fish bones andtrimmings washed.
Vegetables Onions, carrots, celery, leeks Onions, carrots, celery, garlic, tomato puree Onions, carrots, celery, leeks, parsley
Aromatics Sachet of parsley stalks, thyme, bayleaf, peppercorns Sachet of bayleaf, peppercorn, thyme, clove studded onion, parsley stalks Mushroom parings, lime, white wine, sachet of aromatics
Total time 3 – 6 hours 6 – 8 hours 20 – 30 minutes
Uses Sauces, stews, soups, aspic jelly Sauces(brown), stews, glazes, braising Fish sauces, soups, stews
Cooking Put bones in stock pot and cold water to cover the bones, bring to a boil drain the bones, refresh the bones and wash the bones. Put the bones to the stock pot and add cold water to cover it. Heat again scum is formed at the top by coagulation of proteins and waste. Skimming the scum lower the flame, add mirepoix and sachet and simmer for 3 – 6 hrs. Temp. 75 – 80oC. Put the bones in the roasting tray. Keep it in the oven around 190oC. No blanching. Stir it for even roasting for ½ hr. or more. Add mirepoix in the same tray. Brown the vegetables with 20g of oil in stock pot. Lastly add tomato puree; put the bones, vegetables in the stock pot. Drain of the excess fat if any in the roasting tray add water and pour it into the stock pot. Add enough of cold water to cover the bones. Skimming the scum lower the flame, and simmer for 6 – 8 hrs. Soak the bones in water wash them thoroughly. Sweat the bones and vegetables in butter. Add cold water, simmer it, and add all the spices/herbs. Simmer it for 20 minutes only. Cannot be stored.
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